Ind AS 12 Income Taxes

Ind AS 12 Income Taxes prescribes the accounting treatment for income taxes. For the purposes of this Standard, income taxes include all domestic and foreign taxes which are based on taxable profits. Income taxes also include taxes, such as withholding taxes, which are payable by a subsidiary, associate or joint venture on distributions to the reporting entity.

The principal issue in accounting for income taxes is how to account for the current and future tax consequences of:

(a) the future recovery (settlement) of the carrying amount of assets (liabilities) that are recognized in an entity’s statement of financial position; and (b) transactions and other events of the current period that are recognized in an entity’s financial statements.

Ind AS 12 also deals with the recognition of deferred tax assets arising from unused tax losses or unused tax credits, the presentation of income taxes in the financial statements and the disclosure of information relating to income taxes.

Ind AS 12 is based on balance sheet approach. It requires recognition of tax consequences of difference between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities and their tax base.

<>Related: Ind AS 11, Construction Contract

Recognition (Ind AS 12 Income Taxes)

Current tax for current and prior periods shall, to the extent unpaid, be recognized as a liability. If the amount already paid in respect of current and prior periods exceeds the amount due for those periods, the excess shall be recognized as an asset. Current tax liabilities (assets) for the current and prior periods shall be measured at the amount expected to be paid to (recovered from) the taxation authorities, using the tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period.

It is inherent in the recognition of an asset or liability that the reporting entity expects to recover or settle the carrying amount of that asset or liability. If it is probable that recovery or settlement of that carrying amount will make future tax payments larger (smaller) than they would be if such recovery or settlement were to have no tax consequences, this Standard requires an entity to recognize a deferred tax liability (deferred tax asset), with certain limited exceptions.

A deferred tax asset shall be recognized for the carry forward of unused tax losses and unused tax credits to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profit will be available against which the unused tax losses and unused tax credits can be utilized.

Measurement (Ind AS 12 Income Taxes)

Current tax liabilities (assets) for the current and prior periods shall be measured at the amount expected to be paid to (recovered from) the taxation authorities, using the tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities shall be measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply to the period when the asset is realized or the liability is settled, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period.

The measurement of deferred tax liabilities and deferred tax assets shall reflect the tax consequences that would follow from the manner in which the entity expects, at the end of the reporting period, to recover or settle the carrying amount of its assets and liabilities.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities shall not be discounted (Ind AS 12 Income Taxes)

The carrying amount of a deferred tax asset shall be reviewed at the end of each reporting period. An entity shall reduce the carrying amount of a deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow the benefit of part or all of that deferred tax asset to be utilized. Any such reduction shall be reversed to the extent that it becomes probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available.

Allocation (Ind AS 12 Income Taxes)

This Standard requires an entity to account for the tax consequences of transactions and other events in the same way that it accounts for the transactions and other events themselves. Thus, for transactions and other events recognized in profit or loss, any related tax effects are also recognized in profit or loss. For transactions and other events recognized outside profit or loss (either in other comprehensive income or directly in equity), any related tax effects are also recognized outside profit or loss (either in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, respectively). Similarly, the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities in a business combination affects the amount of goodwill arising in that business combination or the amount of the bargain purchase gain recognized.

Appendix A of Ind AS 12 address how an entity should account for the tax consequences of a change in its tax status or that of its shareholders. The Appendix prescribes that a change in the tax status of an entity or its shareholders does not give rise to increases or decreases in amounts recognized outside profit or loss. The current and deferred tax consequences of a change in tax status shall be included in profit or loss for the period, unless those consequences relate to transactions and events that result, in the same or a different period, in a direct credit or charge to the recognised amount of equity or in amounts recognised in other comprehensive income. Those tax consequences that relate to changes in the recognized amount of equity, in the same or a different period (not included in profit or loss), shall be charged or credited directly to equity. Those tax consequences that relate to amounts recognized in other comprehensive income shall be recognized in other comprehensive income.

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